Posted on Mar 27, 2021
In the water utilization industry, a heat pump is a facility that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to what is called a thermal reservoir unit. Heat pumps move thermal energy in the opposite direction of spontaneous heat transfer, by the mechanism that absorbs heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one. A heat pump uses external power to accomplish this job of transferring energy from the heat source to the target called heat sink. The most common design of a heat pump involves four main components, namely, a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator and a compressor. The heat transfer medium circulated through these components is called the refrigerant.
Meanwhile, while air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the specific term ""heat pump"" is more general and applies to many heating, ventilating, and air conditioning facilities that are utilized for space heating or space cooling. In practice, heat pumps usually can be used either in heating mode or cooling mode, as required by the users to be with two modes of operation rather than just one which may be very inconvenient. While a heat pump is operated for heating purpose, it employs the same basic refrigeration-type cycle utilized by an air conditioner or a refrigerator, but is in the opposite direction of operation, that is, it releases heat into the conditioned space rather than the surrounding environment instead. In this nature, heat pumps generally draw heat from the cooler external air or from the ground.
In general and in public usages, heat pumps are also increasingly adapted to heat domestic hot water for a wide variety of purposes. The heat hot water may be used for kitchens, bathrooms, clothes washers, or other appropriate purposes after the standard filtration process of the water quality for sure. During the heating mode, heat pumps are significantly more energy efficient than simple electrical resistance heaters but only at certain temperatures or temperature levels.
Therefore, as the temperatures goes down to a certain level, the efficiency of the heat pump in heating mode, becomes marginal. The typical cost of installing a heat pump is higher than that of a resistance heater, and when discussing heat pump efficiencies, the following terms are commonly used. Firstly, it is the coefficient of performance (abbreviated as COP); secondly it is the seasonal coefficient of performance (abbreviated as SCOP), and thirdly it is the seasonal performance factor (abbreviated as SPF). The higher the number, the more efficient a heat pump is, the less energy it consumes, and the more cost-effective it is to operate and work. There are several critical factors that can affect the efficiency of a heat pump, such as auxiliary equipment, technology, size and control system, yet also temperature and humidity conditions are to be considered since the efficiency drops when the temperature difference increases or when freezing can occur and these are to be solemnly evaluated. Today, the usages of heat pump are rather common and this technology in deed brings many good benefits to the public.